Terms Glossary and Acronyms


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Word Definition
A  
AAMVA American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators
AAR Association of American Railroads
AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Access Control The degree that access to abutting land in connection with a highway is fully, partially, or not controlled by public authority.
Activity Area Located adjacent to actual work area, whether workers and equipment were present or not.
Advance Warning Area Located after the first warning sign but before the work area.
Age Years of age for the person involved in a crash.
Air Bag Deployed Deployment status of an air bag relative to the position in the vehicle for this occupant.
Alcohol/ Involvement Law enforcement suspected, and documented, that at least one driver or non-motorist involved in the crash had used alcohol.  Includes both alcohol use under the legal limit and at or over the legal limit. 
Alcohol Test Indication of the presence of alcohol by test, type, and result.
Alignment The geometric characteristics or layout of a roadway. Alignment is usually subdivided into horizontal alignment. Includes straight, curve left, curve right.
Alphanumeric Identifier Consisting of alphabetic and numeric symbols.
Angle - Manner of Impact A crash where two motor vehicles impact at an angle.  For example, the front of one motor vehicle impacts the side of another motor vehicle.  Includes front-to-side, same direction, opposite direction, right angle and direction not specified.
Annual Average Daily Traffic The average number of motor vehicles passing a point on a roadway in a day, for all days of the year, during a specified calendar year.
ANSI American National Standards Institute
Area(s) of Impact The areas of damage to the motor vehicle caused by the crash.  These areas should include the area of the motor vehicle that received the initial impact and the area that was most damaged.
ASCE Association of State and Community Engineers
At Intersection but No Crosswalk Person at an area that contains a crossing or connection of two or more roadways not classified as a driveway access but without the street crossing distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface of the roadway.
ATSIP Association of Traffic Safety Information Professionals
Authorized Speed Limit Authorized speed limit for the motor vehicle at the time of the crash.  The authorization may be indicated by the posted speed limit, blinking sign at construction zones, etc.
Auto Transporter A single-unit truck, truck/trailer, or tractor/semi-trailer having a cargo body specifically designed to transport other motor vehicles. 
B
BAC Test Result Blood Alcohol Concentration.
Backing A start from a parked or stopped position in the direction of the rear of the motor vehicle.
Bicycle Violation   The disregard intentionally or unintentionally of the rules or laws governing the operation of a bicycle as a transport device in the location where the violation occurred.
Bikeway Any road, path, or way which is specifically designated as being open to bicycle travel regardless of whether such facilities are designated for the exclusive use of bicycles or are to be shared with other transportation modes.
Booster Seat A "belt-positioning seat" that positions a child on a vehicle seat to improve the fit of the lap and shoulder seat belt system.  This seat is recommended for children who weigh 40 pounds or more.
Bridge A structure, including supports, carrying a roadway, railroad etc., over an obstruction such as water, a railway, or another roadway, having an opening of 20 feet (6 m) or more measured along the center of the structure.
Bridge- Overhead Structure Any part of a bridge that is over the reference or subject roadway.  In crash reporting, this typically refers to the beams or other structural elements supporting a bridge deck.
Bridge-Pier or Support Support for a bridge structure other than at the ends. 
Bridge/Structure Identification Number A unique federal inspection/inventory identifier assigned to a bridge, underpass, overpass, or tunnel that is also linkable to the national bridge inventory.
Bridge Rail A barrier attached to a bridge deck or a bridge parapet to restrain motor vehicles, pedestrians or other users.
Bus A motor vehicle consisting primarily of a transport device designed for carrying more than eight persons per the regulations of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. 
C
Cargo Van Motor vehicle less than 10,000 lbs (4,536 kg) that is configured to carry cargo.
Centerline A pavement marking used to separate traffic traveling in opposite directions.  A centerline need not be at the geometrical center of the pavement. 
Centerline, Broken A broken centerline indicates that passing is permitted.
Centerline, Double A double centerline indicates that passing is prohibited.
Centerline, Solid and Broken Line A centerline that is both solid and broken indicates that passing is permitted in one direction. 
Changing Lanes Shift from one traffic lane to another traffic lane moving in the same direction.
Child Restraint System-Forward Facing Child passenger faces forward in the child restraint system.  This does not imply correct use or placement.  This system is recommended for children who weigh between 20 and 40 pounds.
Child Restraint System-Rear Facing Child passenger faces the rear in the child restraint system.  This does not imply correct use or placement.  This system is recommended for infants from birth to 30 pounds.
Collision A motor vehicle crash, other than an overturning crash, in which the first harmful event is a collision of a motor vehicle in transport with another motor vehicle, other property, animal or pedestrian.
Collision With Fixed Object A motor vehicle in transport strikes an impact attenuator/crash cushion, bridge overhead structure, bridge pier or support, bridge rail, culvert, curb, ditch, embankment, guardrail face or end, concrete traffic barrier, standing tree, utility pole/light support, traffic sign or signal support, fence, mailbox, or other fixed object.
Collision With Object Not Fixed A motor vehicle in transport strikes a pedestrian, pedalcycle, railway vehicle, animal, motor vehicle in transport, parked motor vehicle, falling, work zone/maintenance equipment, other moveable object or is struck by falling, shifting cargo or anything set in motion by a motor vehicle.
Commercial Cargo Body Type The type of body for buses and trucks >10,000 lbs (4,536 kg) GVWR.
Commercial Driver License Class (CDLC) The type of commercial motor vehicle that a licensed driver has been examined on and/or approved to operate.  This information is obtained by linkage to the driver license file.
Commercial Motor Vehicle Any self-propelled or towed motor vehicle used on a highway in interstate commerce to transport passengers or property when the vehicle (1) has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating or gross vehicle weight or gross combination weight, of more than 10,000 lbs or 4,536 kg; or (2) used for commercial transport of more than 8 passengers (including the driver); or (3) is used for non-commercial transport of more than 15 passengers, including the driver; or (4) is used in transporting material found by the Secretary of Transportation to be hazardous under 49 U.S.C. 5103 and transporting in a quantity requiring placarding under regulations prescribed by the Secretary under 49 CFR, subtitle B, chapter I, subchapter C.
Commercial Motor Vehicle Configuration Indicates the general configuration of this motor vehicle, (truck, bus, passenger vehicle, etc.), carrying hazardous materials.
Commercial Motor Vehicle Endorsements Issued to drivers after successfully completing a specialized test that qualifies them to operate that specific type of commercial motor vehicle.
Compartment Intrusion Intrusion into the occupant compartment as the result of a crash.
Concrete Traffic Barrier A type of permanent median made of concrete that is usually fixed but sometimes can be moved by special equipment to shift lane direction. 
Construction Zone See Work Zone.
Contributing Circumstances, Environment Apparent environmental conditions which may have contributed to the crash.
Contributing Circumstances, Motor Vehicle Preexisting motor vehicle defects or maintenance conditions that may have contributed to the crash.
Contributing Circumstances, Road Apparent condition of the road which may have contributed to the crash.
Crash Case Identifier Unique identifier within a given year that identifies a given crash within a state.
Crash City/Place The city/place (police jurisdiction) in which the crash occurred.  Name codes should be standardized or compatible with the GSA Geographic Locator Codes (GLC), which can be found on the Internet at www.gsa.gov.
Crash County The county, or equivalent entity, in which the crash occurred.  Name codes should be standardized or compatible with the GSA Geographic Locator Codes (GLC), which can be found on the Internet at www.gsa.gov.
Crash Cushion See Impact Attenuator.
Crash Date and Time The date (year, month, and day) and time (00:00-23:59) at which a crash occurred.
Crash Location Exact location on the roadway, using GPS/GIS or linear referencing technology, to document where the first harmful event occurred. 
Crash Severity The severity of a crash based on the most severe injury to any person involved in the crash.
Crossover   Area in the median of a divided trafficway where motor vehicles are permitted to travel across the opposing lanes of traffic or do a U-turn. 
Crossover- Related Crash located in the area of the median of a divided trafficway where motor vehicles are permitted to cross the opposing lanes of traffic or do a U-turn.
Culvert An enclosed structure providing free passage of water under a roadway with a clear opening of less than twenty feet (6m) measured along the center of the roadway.
Curb A raised edge or border to a roadway.  Curbs may be constructed of concrete, asphalt, or wood and typically have a face height of less than 9 inches (225 mm).
D
Date and Time Crash Reported to Law Enforcement The date and time at which the law enforcement agency was notified about the crash.
Delineator Presence The presence of a series of reflecting devices mounted at regular intervals along the side of the road to indicate the horizontal alignment of the roadway.  Delineators are oriented to face the driver for each approach.  They are not used at intersections that generally have lighting and/or well-marked lane indications.
Deployed-Combination More than one air bag deploys, including front and side, front and other, side and other, or front, side and other, etc.
Deployed-Front Air bag for the driver or front seat passenger is deployed out of its cover and protruding into driver compartment.  Bag is fully or partially deflated or inflated.
Deployed-Side Air bag on side of motor vehicle is deployed out of its cover and protruding into occupant compartment.  Bag is fully or partially deflated or inflated.
Deployed-Other A knee air bag, air belt, or other new air bag technology is deployed.
Deployed-Unknown Not known if air bag is deployed out of its cover and protruding into occupant compartment.
Derived Data Elements Derived data elements are obtained by counting or recoding information contained in existing data elements that have already been collected and computerized.
Direction of Travel Before Crash       Usually the general direction of the motor vehicle on the roadway prior to the crash. However, on state and federal roads that have a designated direction, it is this designated direction.  For example, the direction of a state designated north-south highway must be either northbound or southbound even though a motor vehicle may have been traveling due east as a result of a short segment of the highway having an east-west orientation.
Disabling Damage Damage that precludes departure of the motor vehicle from the scene of the crash in its usual daylight-operating manner after normal repairs.  As a result, the motor vehicle had to be towed, or carried from crash scene, or assisted by an emergency motor vehicle.
Divided Trafficway Roadway travel in opposite directions that is physically separated by a median that is painted, raised, suppressed, etc.  Excludes two-way continuous left turn lanes.
Driver     An occupant who is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle or, for an out-of-control motor vehicle, an occupant who was in control until control was lost.
Driver Actions at Time of Crash The actions by the driver at the time of the crash.
Driver Condition at Time of Crash Any relevant condition of the driver that is directly related to the crash.
Driver Distracted By Distractions that may have influenced driver performance.  The distractions can occur inside the motor vehicle (internal) or outside the motor vehicle (external).
Driver License Class The type of commercial or noncommercial motor vehicle that a licensed driver has been examined on and/or approved to operate.  Includes 4 classes:  A, B, C, and M.  See P11 for description of each class. 
Driver License Jurisdiction The geographic or political entity issuing a driver license. 
Driver License Number A unique number assigned by the authorizing agent issuing a driver license to the individual.
Driver License Restrictions Restrictions assigned to an individual's driver license by the license examiner, e.g. daytime driving only.
Driver License Status The current status of an individual's driver license.
Driver Name The full name of the driver.
Driveway/Alley A roadway providing access to property adjacent to a trafficway.
Driveway Access Crosswalk Crosswalk on roadway providing access to property adjacent to a trafficway.
Driveway Access Related The first harmful event occurs on the trafficway, not on the driveway access portion of the trafficway.
Driving Too Fast for Conditions Traveling at a speed that was unsafe for the road, weather, traffic or other environmental conditions at the time.
Drug Involvement Law enforcement suspected, and documented, that at least one driver or non-motorist involved in the crash had used drugs. 
Drug Test Indication of the presence of drug test, type and result.  Excludes drugs administered post-crash.
Drug Test Result Results of tests performed to determine presence of drugs.
Dump Truck Can be tilted or otherwise manipulated to discharge its load by gravity.
E
Edge Line A pavement marking used to mark the edge of pavement for driver guidance.
Ejection Occupant completely or partially thrown from the interior of the motor vehicle, except motorcycles, as a result of a crash.  
Electronic Communication Device Includes cell phone, pager, two-way radio and other devices enabling the driver and/or occupants of the vehicle to communicate with others not located in the vehicle.
Emergency Ambulance Any public or private ambulance service under contract to a jurisdiction to provide emergency response for medical emergencies.
Emergency Motor Vehicle Use Indicates official motor vehicles, such as military, law enforcement, ambulance, fire, etc., that are involved in a crash while on an emergency response.  Emergency refers to an official motor vehicle that is usually traveling with physical emergency signals in use, typically red light blinking, siren sounding, etc. 
EMS Response Agency Identifier Identifier for EMS agency that responds.
EMS Response Run Number Usually documented on EMS run report.
Entering or Crossing Specified Location Person entered or crossed over a specific identified area that either was or was not part of the trafficway or roadway.
Entering Traffic Lane Physical presence in trafficway.
Entrance/Exit Ramp Crash is located on either the entrance or exit ramp.
Extent of Motor Vehicle Damage Estimation of total damage to the motor vehicle caused by the crash. Disabling damage implies damage to the motor vehicle that is sufficient to require the motor vehicle to be towed or carried from the scene.
F
Failure to Keep In Proper Lane Driver did not maintain position in appropriate travel lane.
Failed to Yield Right-of-Way Driver failed to yield right-of-way to another motor vehicle or non-occupant as required.
Farm Waiver Waiver granted for the operation of farm motor vehicles.
FARS Fatality Analysis Reporting System
Fatal Injury Any injury that results in death within a 30-day period after the crash occurred.
Fell Asleep, Fainted, Fatigued, etc. Driver experienced a temporary loss of consciousness or was operating in a reduced physical and mental capacity due to weariness, medication, or other drugs.
FIPS Code Federal Information Processing Standards for coding states, counties, and cities, which can be accessed on the Internet at www.gsa.gov.
Fire/Explosion Fire/explosion that was the cause or result of the crash.
First Harmful Event The first injury or damage-producing event that characterizes the crash.
Five-Point, or More-Intersection An intersection where more than two roadways cross or connect.
FHWA Federal Highway Administration
Flagger Traffic control person controlling traffic with a flag applicable to the motor vehicle at the crash location.
Flashing Traffic Control Signal Traffic control signal that is flashing or a single light flashing red or yellow. 

Flatbed
A single-unit truck, truck/trailer, or tractor/semi-trailer whose body is without sides or roof, with or without readily removable stakes which may be tied together with chains, slats, or panels.  This includes trucks transporting containerized loads.
FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
Followed Too Closely Driver was positioned at a distance behind another motor vehicle or non-occupant that was too close to permit safe response to any change in movement or behavior by the other motor vehicle or non-occupant.
Four-Way Intersection Where two roadways cross or connect. 
Front Seat-Left Side Usually the driver's seat for a motorcycle or a motor vehicle, except for postal trucks and some foreign vehicles.
Front Seat-Right Side Passenger seat to right of driver and next to the door, except for postal trucks and some foreign vehicles.
Front Seat-Middle Passenger seat between driver and right seat passenger, except for postal trucks and some foreign vehicles.
Full Access Control Authority to control access is exercised to give preference to thru traffic by providing access connections with selected public roads only, and by prohibiting crossings at grade or direct private driveway connections.
Functional Damage Damage that is not disabling, but affects operation of the motor vehicle or its parts.
G
Geographic Information System (GIS) Computerized system that associates information with specific geographic locations, such as roadway characteristics by latitude/ longitude.
GHSA Governors Highway Safety Association
Global Positioning System (GPS) System of satellites that transmit geographic locations in terms of latitude and longitude.
Gore An area of land where two roadways diverge or converge.  The area is bounded on two sides by the edges of the roadways, which join at the point of divergence or convergence.  The direction of traffic must be the same on both sides of these roadways.  The area includes shoulders or marked pavement, if any, between the roadways. 
Grade   The inclination of a roadway, expressed in the rate of rise or fall in feet (meters) per 100 feet (meters) of horizontal distance.  Includes level, hillcrest, up hill, down hill, sag (bottom).
Grain/Chips/ Gravel Truck Closed sides and bottom to carry grain, chips, gravel, etc.
Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR) The sum of all GVWRs for each unit in a combination-unit motor vehicle.  Thus for single-unit trucks there is no difference between the GVWR and the GCWR.  For combination trucks (truck tractors pulling a single semi-trailer, truck tractors pulling double or triple trailers, trucks pulling trailers, and trucks pulling other motor vehicles), the GCWR is the sum of the GVWRs of all units in the combination.
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) The amount recommended by the manufacturer as the upper limit to the operational weight for a motor vehicle and any cargo (human or other) to be carried.
Guardrail (Guiderail) A longitudinal barrier consisting of posts and rails or cables.
Guardrail End The end of the guardrail.
Guardrail Face Other than the end of the guardrail.
H
Harmful Event Occurrence of injury or damage.
Hazardous Materials Any substance or material which has been determined by the U.S. Secretary of Transportation to be capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce and which has been so designed under regulations of the US DOT.
Hazardous Materials Placard (Cargo Only) A diamond-shaped sign that must be affixed to any motor vehicle that carries hazardous materials. It usually contains a four digit number in the middle of the placard and a one digit number at the bottom that indicates hazard class and specific material being carried.
Hazardous Materials Released Involvement (Cargo Only) Indication whether hazardous materials were released from the cargo compartment.
Head-On - Manner of Impact A crash where the front ends of two motor vehicles impact together.  This also is referred to as front-to-front.
Helmet Used Safety helmet worn by non-motorist (bicyclist) or driver (motorcyclist).
Highway Traffic Sign A sign intended to guide, regulate, or inform highway users.  
Highway Traffic Sign Post A pole, post, or structure constructed to support a highway sign intended to guide, regulate, or inform highway users.
Hillcrest Top of the hill.
Hit and Run Crashes where the vehicle, or the driver of the vehicle, in transport is a contact vehicle in the crash, and departs the scene without stopping to render aid.
Hopper A truck body designed to carry grain, chips, gravel, etc.
Horizontal Alignment   The change in horizontal direction of a roadway determined at the point of curvature (pc) and expressed in terms of direction, degree of curve and length.
HSIS Highway Safety Information System
I
IACP International Association of Chiefs of Police
ICD-9, ICD-10 International Classification of Diseases, 9 th edition, and 10th edition in process, developed by the World Health Organization and maintained in the U.S. by the Centers for Disease Control, DHHS.  This system codes the type of disease/injury and body area affected for all hospital inpatients who are discharged and to document the cause of death.
Identification Number Unique number that identifies a person, crash, motor vehicle, bridge/structure, etc.
Immersion Object or person covered completely by liquid.
Impact Attenuator/Crash Cushion A barrier at a spot location, less than 25 ft. (7.6 m) away, designed to prevent an errant motor vehicle from impacting a fixed object hazard by gradually decelerating the motor vehicle to a safe stop or by redirecting the motor vehicle away from the hazard.
In Parking Lane or Zone Crash location outside the roadway. 
Incapacitating Injury Any injury, other than a fatal injury, which prevents the injured person from walking, driving or normally continuing the activities the person was capable of performing before the injury occurred.  Often defined as "needing help from the scene."
Indian Nation A federally recognized Indian tribe with sovereign authority to interact on a government-to-government basis directly with federal agencies.
Injury Area The primary or most obvious area of the person's body injured during the crash.
Injury Description Type of injury inflicted to injury area.
Injury Status The level of injury severity for a person involved in the crash.
Interchange A system of interconnecting roadways in conjunction with one or more grade separations, providing for the movement of traffic between two or more roadways on different levels.
Intermittent or Moving Work Type of work zone.
International License (other than Mexico, Canada) Driver license issued by country other than Canada, Mexico or U.S.  
Intersection       An area which 1) contains a crossing or connection of two or more roadways not classified as driveway access and 2) is embraced within the prolongation of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, the lateral boundary lines of the roadways.  Where the distance along a roadway between two areas meeting these criteria is less than 10 m (33 ft), the two areas and the roadway connecting them are considered to be parts of a single intersection.
Intersection as Part of Interchange Refer to Appendices J and K.
Intersection Related Location of the crash next to an intersection and results from an action related to the movement of traffic units through the intersection.
Intersection Type The type of intersection at which two or more roadways intersect at the same level.
IPTM Institute of Police Technology and Management
Island Cement or grassy area in the middle of a trafficway.
ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers
J
Jackknife An uncontrolled articulation between a tractor and trailer(s) that occurs at any time during the crash sequence.
Junction Interchange The area formed by the connection of two roadways.  Includes:  (1) all at-grade intersections, (2) connections between a driveway access or alley connections between a driveway access or alley access and a roadway which is not a driveway access or alley access, (3) connections between two alley accesses or driveway access or (4) connection between a driveway access and an alley access.
Junction Non-Interchange Area Refer to Appendix J.
K
KABCO A functional measure of the injury severity for any person involved as determined by law enforcement at the scene of the crash.  (Fatal Injury (K), Incapacitating Injury (A), Non-Incapacitating Injury (B), Possible Injury (C), No Injury (O)
L
Lane A strip of roadway used for a single line of motor vehicles.
Lane Closure Type of work zone.
Lane Line   A pavement marking used to separate traffic traveling in the same direction.  Lane lines are normally 4 to 6 in (100 to 150 mm) wide.
Lane Shift/Crossover Type of work zone.
Lap Belt Only Used Use of a lap safety belt either because the motor vehicle is equipped only with lap belt or because the shoulder belt is not in use.
Latitude and Longitude Geographical coordinates that indicate the location of the crash.
Law Enforcement Reporting Agency Identifier A unique identifier for the law enforcement agency that provided information on the crash report.
Law Enforcement Suspects Alcohol Use Driver or non-motorist involved in the crash suspected by law enforcement to have used alcohol. 
Law Enforcement Suspects Drug Use Driver or non-motorist involved in the crash suspected by law enforcement to have used drugs. 
LETN Law Enforcement Training Network

Leaving Travel Lane
A motor vehicle or person moving outside the travel lane.
Light Condition The type/level of light that exists at the time of a motor vehicle crash.
Light Truck Trucks (van, mini-van, panel, pickup, sport utility) of 10,000 lbs GVWR or less.
Lighting   Non-motorist use of lights on his/her person or on a motor vehicle not in transport or transport vehicles other than motor vehicle as safety equipment.
Linear Referencing System (LRS) A standardized data format that provides the ability to create complex overlays of multiple events or occurrences along a route to support corridor planning, pavement rehabilitation, or other complex analysis.
Link Node System   A system that assigns an identifier to each segment of roadway and to specific points or nodes that are useful to reference the location of a crash.
Location of the First Harmful Event The location of the first harmful event as it relates to its position within or outside the trafficway.
Low Speed Vehicle Includes motorized scooter or human transporter (Segway, etc.), golf cart, tractor or other low speed motor vehicle used for transport.
Light Support A pole or post constructed to support lighting of the highway.
Lying in Roadway Person physically located in that part of trafficway designed, improved, and ordinarily used for motor vehicle travel.
M
Mainline Number of Lanes at Intersection Number of "thru" lanes on the mainline approaches at intersection including all lanes with "thru" movement ("thru" and left-turn, or "thru" and right-turn) but not exclusive turn lanes.
Maintenance Zone See Work Zone.
Manner of Crash/Collision Impact The identification in a crash of the manner in which two motor vehicles in transport initially came together without regard to direction of force.
Marked Crosswalk That portion of the roadway that is distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface of the roadway.
Median An area of trafficway between parallel roads separating travel in opposite directions.  A median should be four or more feet wide. 
Medical Facility   Hospital, clinic, trauma center that received patient for treatment.
Medium/Heavy Trucks Greater than 10,000 lbs (4,536 kg).
Minor Damage Damage which does not affect the operation of or disable the motor vehicle in transport.
Most Harmful Event for this Vehicle Event that resulted in the most severe injury or greatest property damage for this motor vehicle.
Motor Carrier A for-hire motor carrier or a private motor carrier.  The term includes a motor carrier's agents, officers and representatives as well as employees responsible for hiring, supervising, training, assigning or dispatching of drivers and employees concerned with the installation, inspection, and maintenance of motor vehicle equipment and/or accessories.
Motor Carrier Cargo Loss, Shift, or Release The loss or release of the goods being transported from the cargo compartment of the truck, or the change in the position of the goods within the cargo compartment.
Motor Carrier Cargo Tank A single-unit truck, truck/trailer, or tractor semi-trailer having a cargo body designed to transport dry bulk (fly, ash, etc.), liquid bulk (gasoline, milk, etc.) or gas bulk (propane, etc.).
Motor Carrier Identification The identification number, name and address of an individual partnership or corporation responsible for the transportation of persons or property as indicated on the shipping manifest.
Motor Coach Bus designed to travel long distances between cities. 
Motor Home A van where a frame-mounted recreational unit is added behind the driver or cab area or mounted on a bus/truck chassis that is suitable to live in and drive across the country.
Motor Vehicle Authorized Speed Limit Authorized speed limit for the motor vehicle at the time of the crash.  The authorization may be indicated by the posted speed limit, blinking sign at construction zones, etc.
Motor Vehicle Body Type Category The general configuration or shape or a motor vehicle distinguished by characteristics such as number of doors, seats, windows, roof line, hard top or convertible.
Motor Vehicle Crash A motor vehicle crash (1) that involves a transport vehicle in transport (2) in which the first harmful event is not produced by the discharge of a firearm or explosive device, and (3) that does not directly result from a cataclysm.  Inclusions:  motor vehicle driven into water after bridge was washed out during a hurricane or flood (cataclysm), motor vehicle driven into fallen materials covering a roadway after a landslide or avalanche (cataclysm), and others.

Motor Vehicle In Transport
Any motorized (mechanically or electrically powered) motor vehicle not operated on rails. The term "in transport" denotes the state or condition of a transport vehicle that is in motion or within the portion of a transport way ordinarily used by similar transport vehicles.  When applied to motor vehicles, "in transport" means in motion or on a roadway. Inclusions:  motor vehicle in traffic on a highway, driverless motor vehicle in motion, motionless motor vehicle abandoned on a roadway, disabled motor vehicle on a roadway, etc.  In roadway lanes used for travel during rush hours and parking during off-peak periods, a parked motor vehicle is in transport during periods when parking is forbidden.  (See definitions for Roadway, Road, and Trafficway.)
Motor Vehicle License Plate Number Alphanumeric identifier or other characters, exactly as displayed, on the registration plate or tag affixed to the motor vehicle.  For combination trucks, motor vehicle plate number is obtained from the power unit or tractor.
Motor Vehicle Make The distinctive (coded) name applied to a group of motor vehicles by a manufacturer.  This information also can be obtained separately from the Vehicle Registration data file.  Refer to Appendix M.
Motor Vehicle Maneuver/Action The controlled maneuver for this motor vehicle prior to the beginning of the sequence of events. 
Motor Vehicle Model The manufacturer-assigned code denoting a family of motor vehicles  (within a make) that has a degree of similarity in construction, such as body, chassis, etc.  This information also can be obtained separately from the Vehicle Registration data file.
Motor Vehicle Model Year The year that is assigned to a motor vehicle by the manufacturer.  Usually it is the year in which the model change occurs. This information also can be obtained separately from the Vehicle Registration data file.
Motor Vehicle Registration State and Year   The state, commonwealth, territory, foreign country, Indian Nation, U.S. Government, etc., issuing the registration plate and the year of registration as indicated on the registration plate displayed on the vehicle.
Motor Vehicle Unit Number A number assigned to uniquely identify each motor vehicle involved in the crash.  This number is not assigned to pedestrians or bicyclists.
Motorcycle A two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle designed to transport one or two people.  Included are motor scooters, mini-bikes, and mopeds.
Motorist Any occupant of a motor vehicle in transport.
MMUCC Model Minimum Uniform Crash Criteria
N
NASS-CDS National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System
NASS-GES National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System
National Highway System Includes 160,000 miles of major highways that link most of the U.S.  These highways include interstates, principal arterials, strategic highway networks, major strategic highway network connectors, and intermodal connectors.
NCIC National Crime Information Center
NCSA National Center for Statistics and Analysis
NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
No Access Control Includes all sections that do not meet the criteria for full or partial access control. 
No Improper Driving Driver operated motor vehicle in an apparently correct manner.
Non-Collision Any motor vehicle crash not involving a collision.  Includes overturn/rollover, fire/explosion, immersion, jackknife, cargo/equipment loss or shift, equipment failure, separation of units, ran off road right or left, cross median/centerline, downhill runaway, fell/jumped from motor vehicle, thrown or falling object.
Non-Fatal Injury Bodily harm to a person that does not result in death.
Non-Highway Work Maintenance or other types of work occurring near or in the trafficway but not related to the trafficway.
Non-Incapacitating Injury Any injury, other than a fatal injury or an incapacitating injury, which is evident to observers at the scene of the crash in which the injury occurred.  Examples:  contusions (bruises), laceration, bloody nose.
Non-Intersection Crosswalk A portion of the roadway, not at an intersection, that is distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface of the roadway.
Non-Junction Roadway that is not an intersection or a connection between a driveway access and a roadway other than a driveway access.
Non-Motorist Any person other than an occupant of a motor vehicle in transport. This includes pedestrians, bicyclists, other cyclists, occupants of other motor vehicles not in transport, and occupants of transport vehicles other than motor vehicles.
Non-Motorist Action Prior to Crash The action of the non-motorist prior to the crash.  
Non-Motorist Actions at Time of Crash What the non-motorist was doing at the time of the crash such as improper crossing, darting, lying and/or in the roadway, failure to yield right-of-way, being inattentive, wearing dark clothing, failure to obey traffic signs, signals or officer, on wrong side of road, other.
Non-Motorist Condition at Time of Crash Any relevant condition of the non-motorist that is directly related to the crash
Non-Motorist Location At Time of Crash The non-motorist's location with respect to the trafficway at the time of the crash.
Non-Motorist Number The unique, sequential number assigned to the non-motorist involved in a crash.
Non-Motorist Safety Equipment Safety equipment(s) used by the non-motorist, including retro-reflective clothing, lighting, protective pads, helmet, etc.
Non-Motorist Type  Type of non-motorist involved in a crash (pedestrian, pedalcyclist, skater, etc.)

Number of Fatalities
The count of fatalities (motorists and non-motorists) that resulted from injuries within 30 days sustained as the result of a specific motor vehicle crash. 
Number of Motor Vehicles Involved The count of motor vehicles (automobiles, single-unit trucks, truck combinations, etc.) that are in motion or parked on a roadway and involved in the crash.
Number of Motorists The count of occupants in the motor vehicles in transport involved in the crash. 
Number of Non-Fatally Injured Persons The total number of persons injured in a specific traffic crash, excluding fatalities.
Number of Non-Motorists The count of non-occupants (pedestrians, pedalcyclists, etc.) or occupants of motor vehicles not in transport involved in a crash.
O
Obstruction in Roadway A blockage in the roadway.
Occupant's Motor Vehicle Unit Number The unique number assigned for this crash to the motor vehicle in which this person was an occupant.
Occupant Protection System Use The restraint equipment in use by the occupant, or the helmet use by a cyclist, at the time of the crash.
Off-Roadway, Location Unknown First harmful event is off the roadway but location of the actual property line is unknown.
Operating Defective Equipment (Driver) Vehicle in transport or any part or component of motor vehicle in transport with defects or maintenance conditions which affect the operation of the vehicle.
Originating Agency Identifier (ORI Codes) A unique identifier for each law enforcement agency that is assigned by the Department of Justice.
Other Distractions Inside the Vehicle Other distractions inside the vehicle include eating, drinking, smoking and reading.
Other Distractions Outside the Vehicle Other distractions which occur outside of the vehicle, such as a crash in the next lane or on the other side of the median, automated highway signs, interesting objects in the sky, fire off the roadway, etc.
Other Electronic Device Includes devices which are part of the vehicle such as a navigation device, radio, VCR/DVD/tape player, etc., and devices which are not part of the vehicle such as a palm pilot, computer, etc.
Other Fixed Object Other fixed object includes a wall, building, tunnel, etc.
Other Light Trucks Less than 10,000 lbs or 4,536 kg.
Other Non-Collision Includes dislodged cargo, spewed gravel, etc.
Other Non-Fixed Object Includes fallen trees.
Other Non-Fixed Object - Collision With   A collision with an object other than a motor vehicle in transit, a pedestrian, another road vehicle in transit, a parked motor vehicle, a railway vehicle, a pedal cycle, an animal, or a fixed object.
Other Non-Interchange Includes crossings for bikes, snowmobiles, school, etc.
Other Part of Interchange Refer to Appendix J.
Other Post, Pole, or Support Post, pole or support that does not include a highway safety sign.
Other Traffic Barrier Moveable barriers including cones, chains, law enforcement vehicle, etc.
Outside Trafficway Not physically located on any land way open to the public as a matter of right or custom for moving persons or property from one place to another.
Overtaking/ Passing A motor vehicle that moves from behind a motor vehicle to in front of the same motor vehicle.
Overturn/Rollover A motor vehicle that has overturned at least 90 degrees to its side.
P
Parked Motor Vehicle A transport motor vehicle that is not in motion or on a roadway.  A motor vehicle, or any portion of the motor vehicle outline (excludes open doors, mirrors, etc.), parked on the roadway during periods when parking is prohibited is considered in transport.
Parking Lane An auxiliary lane primarily for the parking of motor vehicles.
Partial Access Control Authority to control access is exercised to give preference to thru traffic to a degree that, in addition to access connections with selected public roads, there may be some crossings at grade and some private driveway connections.  However, these direct private driveway connections have been minimized through the use of frontage roads or other local access restrictions.
Partially Ejected The location of an occupant's body not completely thrown from the motor vehicle as a result of the impact.
Passenger Occupant of motor vehicle other than the driver of the motor vehicle.
Passenger Car/Vehicle Motor vehicles used primarily for carrying passengers.
Pavement Markings Markings set into the surface of, applied upon, or attached to the pavement for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic.  Markings are typically paint, or plastic but may be devices of various materials.
Pavement Markings, Longitudinal The longitudinal markings (paint, plastic, or other) used on the roadway surface to guide or control the path followed by drivers.
PDO Property Damage Only
Pedalcycle Includes bicycle, tricycle, unicycle, pedal car, etc.
Pedalcyclist Any occupant of a pedalcycle.
Pedestrian   A person who is not an occupant of a motor vehicle in transport.  Includes a person who is adjacent to the motor vehicle regardless of their actions.
Pedestrian Conveyance Includes motorized scooter, wheelchair, etc.
Person Traffic Control Device Includes flagger, law enforcement personnel, crossing guard, etc.
Person Type Type of person involved in a crash.
Physical Obstruction An object that blocked sight and contributed to the crash (for example, bush, tree, etc.).
Placard Number A number included on the hazardous material placard displayed on trucks that are carrying hazardous materials.  Many placards have two numbers, a four-digit number in the middle, and a one-digit number at the bottom. See Appendix R.
Playing or Working on Vehicle Non-motorist, such as a child playing or mechanic working/ touching a motor vehicle.
Pole Trailer A trailer designed to be attached to the towing vehicle by means of a reach or pole, or by being boomed or otherwise secured to the towing motor vehicle, and ordinarily used for carrying property of a long or irregular shape.
Possible Injury Complaint of pain without visible injury.
Property Damage Only Crash which results in damage to the motor vehicle or other property but without injury to any occupants or non-motorists.
Protective Pads Used Padded, shaped attachments to protect specific areas of the body (elbows, knees, shins, etc.) from injury, usually when skating.
R
Railway Crossing Device Any sign, signal, or gate that warns of on-coming trains or train tracks crossing the roadway. 
Railway Crossing ID A unique number assigned to a railroad crossing by a state highway agency in cooperation with the American Association of Railroads for identification purposes.  (US DOT/AAR number)
Railway Grade Crossing An intersection between a roadway and train tracks which cross each other at the same level (Grade). 
Railway Vehicle Any land vehicle (train, engine) that is (1) designed primarily for moving persons or property from one place to another on rails and (2) not in use on a land way other than a railway.
Railway Vehicle-Collision With A collision in which a vehicle in transport collides with a railway vehicle (train, engine, etc.). 
Raised Pavement Marker An individual unit marker, reflectorized or non-reflectorized, generally less than one-inch (25 mm) in height, attached to and extending above the normal pavement surface for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic.
Ran Off Road Failure of the driver to keep the motor vehicle on the roadway.
Ran Red Light Driver continues through yellow caution light shortly before or after it turns red.  This driver action is not included in the list of violation codes.
Rear-End Manner of Impact A crash where the front of one motor vehicle impacts the rear of another motor vehicle.  Also referred to as front-to-rear.
Rear-to-Rear- Manner of Impact A crash where the backs of two motor vehicles impact together.
Rear-to-Side- Manner of Impact A crash where the back of one motor vehicle impacts the side of another motor vehicle.
Reflective Clothing Clothing which reflects light and also returns most of that reflection back along the path of the incoming light.
Relation to Junction The location of the crash in relation to an interchange area junction, non-interchange junction or a driveway junction. 
Relation to Roadway   The location of the first harmful event as it relates to its position within or outside the trafficway.
Riding on Vehicle Exterior Person outside of motor vehicle (on hood, running board, trunk, non-trailing unit, etc.) while riding.
Right-of-Way Area within the trafficway.
Road That part of a trafficway that includes both the roadway and any shoulder alongside the roadway.  Includes designated parking areas on a roadway or between the roadway and curb.
Roadside From the property line of the outermost part of the trafficway to the edge of the first road.   Refer to Appendix H.
Roadway That part of a trafficway designed, improved, and ordinarily used for motor vehicle travel or, where various classes of motor vehicles are segregated, that part of a trafficway used by a particular class. Separate roadways may be provided for northbound and southbound traffic (as well as eastbound and westbound) or for trucks and automobiles.  Bridle paths, bicycle paths, and shoulders are not included in this definition.  Refer to Appendix H. 
Roadway Alignment and Grade The geometric or layout and inclination characteristics of the roadway in the direction of travel for this vehicle.
Roadway Functional Classification   The character of service or function of streets or highways.  The classification of rural and urban is determined by state and local officials in cooperation with each other and approved by the Federal Highway Administration, U. S. Department of Transportation.
Roadway Lighting The type of roadway illumination on the roadway.
Roundabout Circular traffic patterns in which yield control is used on all entries, circulating vehicles have the right-of-way, pedestrian access is allowed only across the legs of the roundabout behind the yield line and circulation is counter-clockwise and passes to the right of the central island.
S
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
Sag Bottom of the hill.
School Bus A motor vehicle used for the transportation of any school pupil at or below the 12th-grade level to or from a public or private school or school-related activity.  It is externally identifiable by the color yellow, the words "school bus", flashing red lights located on the front and rear, and lettering on both sides identifying the school or school district served, or the company operating the bus.
School Bus-Related Crash Indicates if a school bus or motor vehicle functioning as a school bus for a school-related purpose is related to the crash.  The "school bus," with or without a passenger on board, must be directly involved as a contact motor vehicle or indirectly involved as a non-contact motor vehicle (children struck when boarding or alighting from the school bus, two vehicles colliding as the result of the stopped school bus, etc.). 
School Zone Signs Signs which change the speed limit on roads adjacent to a school on school days; signs which give advance warning of a school; and signs which warn of children crossing the road.
Seating Position Location for this occupant in, on, or outside of the motor vehicle prior to the crash.
Second Row- Left Side Passenger behind driver of motor vehicle or motorcycle.  Refer to Appendix S.
Second Row- Middle Passenger in middle of back seat.  Refer to Appendix S.
Second Row- Right Side Passenger behind right front seat passenger.  Refer to Appendix S.
Segway Low speed vehicle that serves as a personal motorized conveyance.
Separation of Units When the truck or truck tractor becomes separated from the semi-trailer and/or trailer(s) it is pulling.
Separator A separator is the area of a trafficway between parallel roads separating travel in the same direction or separating a frontage road from other roads.
Sequence of Events The events in sequence related to this motor vehicle, including both non-collision as well as collision events regardless of injury and/or property damage.
Shared-Use Path or Trail A bikeway physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier and either within the highway right-of-way or an independent right-of-way. Shared use paths will also be used by pedestrians, skaters, wheelchairs, joggers and other non-motorized users.
Shoulder That part of a trafficway contiguous with the roadway for emergency use, for accommodation of stopped motor vehicles, and for lateral support of the roadway structure.
Shoulder and Lap Belt Used Use of occupant restraint system where both the shoulder belt and lap belt portions are connected to a buckle.
Shoulder Belt Only Used In a two-part occupant restraint system, only the shoulder belt portion connected to a buckle is used.
Side-Road Number of Lanes Number of "thru" lanes on the side-road approaches at intersection including all lanes with "thru" movement ("thru" and left-turn, or "thru" and right-turn) but not exclusive turn lanes.  Refer to Appendix H.
Sideswipe, Opposite Direction - Manner of Impact Crashes where two motor vehicles are traveling in the opposite direction and impact on the side.
Sideswipe, Same Direction - Manner of Impact Crashes where two motor vehicles are traveling the same direction and impact on the side.
Single-Unit Truck (3-or-more axles) A power unit that includes a permanently mounted cargo body (also called a straight truck) that has three or more axles.
Single-Unit Truck (2-axle, and GVWR over 10,000 lbs) A power unit that includes a permanently mounted cargo body (also called a straight truck) that has only two axles and a GVWR of over 10,000 lbs.
Skater A person wearing in-line roller, roller or bladed skates or using a skateboard.
Sleeper Section of Cab (Truck) Section in back of truck cab where occupants can sleep.
Slope The change in the elevation of an element of the roadway per unit of horizontal length may be expressed as a percent or a ratio.
Source of Information Affiliation of the person documenting the crash information on the crash report.
Special Function of Motor Vehicle in Transport Indicates the type of special function being served by this vehicle regardless of whether the function is marked on the vehicle.
Sport Utility Vehicle A motor vehicle other than a motorcycle or bus consisting primarily of a transport device designed for carrying ten or fewer persons, and generally considered a multi-purpose vehicle that is designed to have off-road capabilities.  These vehicles are generally four-wheel-drive (4x4) and have increased ground clearance.  A utility vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 lbs or less.  Utility vehicles with wheelbases greater than 88 inches are classified by overall width.  The wheelbase and overall width should be rounded to the nearest inch.  Sizes range from mini, small, midsize, full-size and large.  Four-wheel automobiles are not considered utility vehicles. 
State-Specific Identifier An identifier that uniquely identifies a given crash in a state for a specific year.
Stop Signs A six-sided red sign with "STOP" on it, requiring motor vehicles to come to a full stop and look for on-coming traffic before proceeding with caution.
Stopped in Traffic Motor vehicle stopped in traffic at the time of the crash.
Striking Motor vehicle hitting an object, person or other vehicle at time of the crash.
Struck Motor vehicle being hit by an object, person or other motor vehicle at time of the crash.
Superelevation The degree to which the outside edge of a roadway is higher than the inside edge at a specified point on a curve; the change in elevation per unit distance across the roadway from inside to outside edge.
Swerving or Avoiding (due to wind, slippery surface, vehicle, object, non-motorist in roadway, etc.) Defensive driver action to defend against an apparent danger in, on, or due to the condition of the roadway or the presence of a motor vehicle or object or non-motorist in the roadway in order to avoid a crash.
T
T-Intersection An intersection where two roadways connect and one roadway does not continue across the other roadway.  The roadways form a "T".
TEA21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century
Termination Area Located after the activity area but before traffic resumes normal conditions.
Third Row-Left Side Passenger seat on left side of third row of motor vehicle or second passenger (excluding driver) on motorcycle.  Refer to Appendix S.
Third Row-Middle Passenger seat in middle of third row of motor vehicle.  Refer to Appendix S.
Third Row-Right Side Passenger seat on right side of third row of motor vehicle.  Refer to Appendix S.
Thru Roadway A crash would have this code when it is in an interchange area and it does NOT occur: 1) On an Entrance/Exit ramp; or, 2) In an intersection or related to an intersection or other junction.  Refer to Appendix J.
Thrown or Falling Object Object that is thrown or falls on or near a motor vehicle in transport at the time of the crash.
Thru Lane Lane that routes traffic straight ahead away from the local or exit lanes.  Includes dual-purpose lanes where you can go "thru" or turn.
Total Lanes in Roadway Total number of lanes in the roadway on which this motor vehicle was traveling.
Total Occupants In Motor Vehicle in Transport Includes injured and uninjured occupants in this motor vehicle involved in the crash, including persons in or on the motor vehicle at the time of the crash.
Total Volume of Entering Vehicles Vehicles entering all approaches of an intersection.
Totally Ejected Occupant's body completely thrown from the motor vehicle as a result of the crash.
TRaCS Traffic and Criminal Software
Traffic Barrier A device that provides a physical limitation through which a motor vehicle would not normally pass and is designed to contain or redirect an errant motor vehicle.
Traffic Circle An intersection of roads where motor vehicles must travel around a circle to continue on the same road or leave on any intersecting road.
Traffic Control Device (TCD) Type Flashing, school zone, stop, yield, warning, railway crossing signs/signals, etc. which apply to this vehicle.
Traffic Control Signal   Controls traffic movements by illuminating systematically, a green, yellow, or red light or by flashing a single color light.
Traffic Sign Support A pole, post or other type of support for a traffic sign.
Traffic Signal Support A pole, post or other type of support for a traffic signal.
Trafficway Any land way open to the public as a matter of right or custom for moving persons or property from one place to another.  (See Appendix H for a diagram of the trafficway.)
Trafficway Description An indication of whether or not a trafficway is divided and whether it serves one-way or two-way traffic.  (A divided trafficway is one on which roadways for travel in opposite directions is physically separated by a median.  See Appendix H for a diagram of the trafficway.)
Trailing Unit Motorcycle caboose or attached trailer of motor vehicle.
Transition Area Where lanes are shifted or tapered for lane closure.
Transported to Medical Facility By Type and identity of unit providing transport to medical facility receiving patient.
Tree, Standing Tree is upright and in the ground.  A standing tree is a fixed object as opposed to a fallen tree that is a moveable object.
TRCC Traffic Records Coordinating Committee
Truck Tractor (Bobtail) A motor vehicle consisting of a single motorized transport device designed primarily for pulling semi-trailers.
Truck Tractor/Doubles A truck tractor that is pulling a single semi-trailer and one full-sized trailer.
Truck Tractor/Semi-Trailer A truck tractor that is pulling a semi-trailer.
Truck Tractor/Triples A truck tractor that is pulling a single semi-trailer and two full-sized trailers.
Truck/Trailer A motor vehicle combination consisting of a single-unit truck and a trailer.
Turn Lane Lane designated for vehicles turning from one trafficway to another.  This can include regular left turn or continuous left turn lanes.
Two-Way Continuous Left Turn Lane Undivided center lane that facilitates left turns by traffic from both directions.
Type of Intersection An intersection consists of two or more roadways that intersect at the same level.  Configurations include four-way, "T", "Y", five or more points, traffic circle, roundabout, etc.
Type of Work Zone Refers to lane closure or shift, work on shoulder or median, intermittent or moving work, or other.
U
Underride/ Override An underride refers to a motor vehicle sliding under another motor vehicle during a crash.  An override refers to a motor vehicle riding up over another motor vehicle.  Either can occur with a parked motor vehicle.
Unit Number of Motor Vehicle Striking Non-Motorist Identifies the motor vehicle that struck the non-motorist in the crash.
US DOT United States Department of Transportation
Utility Pole/Light Support     Constructed for the primary function of supporting an electric line, telephone line or other electrical-electronic transmission line or cable. 
Utility Zone See Work Zone.
V
Van/Enclosed Box A single-unit truck, truck/trailer, or tractor/semi-trailer having an enclosed body integral to the frame of the motor vehicle.
Vehicle Identification Number  (VIN) A unique combination of alphanumeric characters assigned to a specific motor vehicle and formulated by the manufacturer.  When the technology is available, this number can be obtained by using a bar code reader while the motor vehicle is at the scene. 
Violation Codes All motor vehicle-related violation codes, if any, that apply to this driver.  See Appendix O.
W
Warning Signs Warn traffic of existing or potentially hazardous conditions on or adjacent to a road.
Width of Median Portion of divided highway separating the traveled way for traffic in opposing directions where the crash occurred.  If a crash occurs at a mid-block section, the median width is based on the mid-block section.  If the crash occurs at an intersection, the median width is based on the median widths at the intersection.
Widths of the Lane(s) and Shoulder(s) The width of the lane(s) and of the shoulder(s) at the location of the crash.  
Work on Shoulder or median Type of work zone.
Work Zone An area of a highway with highway construction, maintenance, or utility work activities.  A work zone is typically marked by signs, channelizing devices, barriers, pavement markings, and/or work vehicles.  It extends from the first warning sign or flashing lights on a vehicle to the END ROAD WORK sign or the last traffic control device.  A work zone may exist for short or long durations and may include stationary or moving activities. 
Work Zone Crash A Work Zone Crash is a traffic crash in which the first harmful event occurs within the boundaries of a work zone or on an approach to or exit from a work zone, resulting from an activity, behavior or control related to the movement of the traffic units through the work zone. Includes collision and non-collision crashes occurring within the signs or markings indicating a work zone or occurring on approach to, exiting from or adjacent to work zones that are related to the work zone.  For example: 1) An automobile on the roadway loses control within a work zone due to a shift or reduction in the travel lanes and crashes into another vehicle in the work zone; 2) A van in an open travel lane strikes a highway worker in the work zone; 3) A highway construction vehicle working on the edge of the roadway is struck by a motor vehicle in transport in a construction zone; 4) A rear-end collision crash occurs before the signs or markings indicating a work zone due to vehicles slowing or stopped on the roadway because of the work zone activity; 5)  A pickup in transport loses control in an open travel lane within a work zone due to a shift or reduction in the travel lanes and crashes into another vehicle which exited the work zone; 6) A tractor-trailer approaching an intersection where the other roadway has a work zone strikes a pedestrian outside the work zone because of lack of visibility caused by the work zone equipment.  Excludes single-vehicle crashes involving working vehicles not located in trafficway. For example:  1) A highway maintenance truck strikes a highway worker inside the work site; 2) A utility worker repairing the electrical lines over the trafficway falls from the bucket of a cherry picker.
Work Zone/ Maintenance Equipment Equipment related to the work zone or roadway maintenance.
Work Zone-Related A crash that occurs in or related to a construction, maintenance, or utility work zone, whether workers were actually present at the time of the crash or not.  Work zone-related crashes may also include those involving motor vehicles slowed or stopped because of the work zone, even if the first harmful event was before the first warning sign.
Worn, Travel-Polished Surface A road surface which is well used and shiny.
Y
Y-Intersection An intersection where three roadways connect and none of the roadways continue across the other roadways.  The roadways form a "Y".
Yield Signs Three-sided signs that require motor vehicles to give way to other vehicles.  

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